Production Processes

LTS (Chemical), Inc. manufactures a complete line of ultra-high purity materials using an array of fabrication techniques:


  • Hot Pressing (HP): A powder compaction method in which the external pressure and temperature are applied to the material to increase its density. The powder is placed in the die between movable metal rams, uniaxial pressure is applied, and the entire system is held at elevated temperatures.
    Diameter available: 1” – 18”
  • Cold Pressing (CP): Unlike HP, in this process the powder is pressed under high pressure at room temperature, which may be necessary for highly flammable materials.
  • Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP): A manufacturing method used for the densification of ceramic material by the application of an isostatic pressure at elevated temperatures.
  • VIM-HP: Material is initially synthesized with Vacuum Induction Melting, E-Beam, Arc Melting, or Atmospheric Melting. To remove natural anisotropies or phase separations it is then pulverized to powder and hot pressed back into shape.


  • Slip Casting: Used to shape ceramic parts, this process involves preparation of the liquid clay slip, casting the slip in a plaster mold, removing the mold, air drying the cast piece, gazing the dried product, then firing the glazed product in a kiln.
  • Diffusion Sintering: Powdered components are mixed together and held at high temperature, forming a compound without entering the liquid state.


  • Vacuum Induction Melting (VIM): Metals are melted by electromagnetic induction under vacuum.
  • Vacuum Arc Remelting (VAR): Metals are placed as two electrodes and high current is passed between them in vacuum, melting them into the crucible.
  • Electron-Beam Melting: The material is heated to a high temperature above its meting/evaporation point using an electron beam gun as a heat source.
  • Cold Crucible Induction Levitation Melting: Metal is placed in a powerful magnetic field which holds it suspended and melts it without ever touching a physical crucible.


  • Direct Fluoridation Method (DFM): A specialized process involving a plasma phase reaction to increase the purity, viscosity, and consistency of the material over HF-reaction methods. Then, secondary melting in fluorine gas atmosphere compensates for fluorine stoichiometry deficiencies. Used for military grade (MIL-SPEC compliant) fluoride production. Read more
  • Liquid Phase Formulation (LPF): A liquid-solid solution process used to purify undesired elements out of the compound. For example, used to separate zirconium out of HfO2 and iron out of Ta2O5 to achieve a very low impurity profile.
  • High precision machining: waterjets, lathes, mills, surface grinding and unique precision-machined part production, including complex components such as dental and bone implants.


  • Best Effort Basis: Employed for certain new custom or engineered chemicals that we have reservations about producing in one run. Under this arrangement, the customer will be required to pre-pay 70% of the list price. In return LTS will attempt the production of a material up to three times. After each, if the material is deemed unacceptable by the customer, LTS will refine the process based on analysis of the previous attempt and try again.