Hafnium is a lustrous, silvery, ductile metal that resists corrosion by forming a tough, impermeable, oxide film on its surface; it is unaffected by alkalis and acids, with the exception of hydrofluoric acid (HF). Hafnium exists in nature in all minerals containing zirconium, but because of their similar properties, hafnium and zirconium are not easily separated. The removal of hafnium begins with a liquid-liquid extraction process where one of the end products is hafnium chloride. Pure hafnium metal is finally evolved when the hafnium chloride is reacted with a tetrahalide material and magnesium at 1,100°C.
Hafnium is an excellent material for neutron absorption in control rods used in nuclear power plants; it is also used in the recrystallization of tungsten filaments.
LTS offers high purity hafnium metal in a wide variety of sputtering target geometries and evaporation forms including powder, pellets, and pieces. These materials are fabricated with electron beam melting - the hafnium metal is melted layer by layer with an electron beam under a high vacuum. The employment of this technique allows for the manufacture of hafnium products with exceptionally low quantities of intrinsic gases, a property highly sought after in the industry.
Hafnium oxide, HfO2, is a high-index, low-absorption material used for coatings in the near-UV (below 230 nm) to IR (8,000 nm) regions of the spectrum. Films of hafnium oxide are combined with layers of silicon dioxide to form index-contrasting multilayer structures with high damage thresholds at 350 nm. The material is supplied in compact form as tablets and powders with few metallic impurities.
HfO2 is used in UV laser multilayer coatings, IR mirror coatings, emitter wire coatings, achromatic beam splitting, and protective, polarizing, and dielectric coatings from the UV to medium IR region of spectrum (200-8,000 nm).
Ultra high purity HfO2, introduced by LTS, possesses unique characteristics: HfO2 (produced via LPF) shows absorption below 224 nm and has a high packing density. Compared to other commercially available hafnium oxide products, our hafnium oxide also exhibited the highest Laser Damage Threshold (LDT), therefore making it more useful for excimer lasers applications. Our HfO2 is also completely outgassed and requires ⅓ less time in preconditioning for deposition. LTS also manufactures chemically reduced versions of hafnium oxide conical inserts in various sizes for Telemark and Temescal liners; we also produce these materials in evaporant forms such as pellets, pieces, and discs.