Transparent conductive oxides (TCO's) are electrically conductive materials with a low absorption of electromagnetic waves within the visible region of the spectrum. They are used in a variety of applications such as flat panel displays, thin film solar cells, light emitting diodes (LEDs), opto-electrical interfaces, touch screens, and automobile window de-icers and de-foggers. Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) is the most widely used transparent conductive oxide material; it has exceptional properties such as low resistivity (~10-4 Ω-cm) and high transparency in the visible spectrum. However, ITO is an expensive material. For this reason, Aluminum-doped Zinc Oxide (AZO) and Indium-doped Cadmium Oxide have been utilized as alternative materials.
LTS Research Laboratories, Inc. is a pioneer in the development of standard and custom TCO's for the photovoltaic industries. Since 2006, LTS participated in R&D projects for newer kinds of TCO materials such as IGZO, ZTO, GZO, and GTO. The materials IGZO and IGO are now widely accepted throughout the thin film industry.
- Indium Tin Oxide (ITO)
- Indium Zinc Oxide (IZO)
- Aluminum Zinc Oxide (AZO)
- Indium Tin Zirconium Oxide (ITZO)
- Indium Gallium Oxide (IGO)
- Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide (IGZO)
- Tin Oxide (SnO)
- Zinc Tin Oxide (ZTO)