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Research & Development

engineers working on equipment

LTS's Research and Development facility is a fully fledged analytical and developmental laboratory, conducting a broadly-based multidisciplinary program focusing on the production and application of new materials, as well as advancing production techniques for existing materials. Our US and global manufacturing network and partnerships are capable to melt, synthesizes, purify, machine, bond, and deposit various materials. With custom manufacturing capabilities backed by advanced material characterization, the LTS aim at supplying specialized items meeting or exceeding our customer’s requirements.

To deliver on custom formulations, small-scale production, and provide top-level quality control of products the LTS has established the R&D Lab in Orangeburg, NY. The lab is led by Ph.D. level scientists and is equipped with XPert Pro MPD Diffractometer, XRF, particle size, polarized optical microscope, atomic absorption spectrometer, several furnaces, ball-mill, sieve, and press machines, glove box, as well as complete wet chemistry lab capabilities.

We start by having comprehensive scientific discussion with our customers. Usually, deposited films have quite different physical, optical, or mechanical properties than the targets and pellets from which there are deposited. LTS contributes by adjusting:

optical microscope
  • Synthesis (chemical composition, level of dopants, powder homogenization, gases flow, etc)
  • Processing (annealing conditions, texturing, grinding or machining).
  • Providing detailed characterization (please refer to Analytical Services) and promptly sharing the results with our clients.
  • Soliciting feedback on the deposited material properties, then
  • Adjusting our synthesis and processing protocols.

Several R&D cycles are in order to deliver on new formulations.

engineers working on equipment

Some of our milestone product introductions to the industry include:

  • 1997: Developed the DFM® (Direct Fluorination Method) to produce highly pure fluoride compounds that undergo cleaner deposition for optical coatings.
  • 2003: Creation of YBC Fluorides, several specialized fluoride compounds made with DFM using rare earth fluorides doped with hafnium, named YBC 375, 905, and 907. These can substitute for and even surpass radioactive Thorium Fluoride (ThF4) which can be used for high power CO2 lasers.
  • 2006: Several new Transparent Conductive Oxides (TCOs) to the solar and photovoltaic industries. Materials such as Indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO), Gallium zinc oxide (GZO), and Zinc tin oxide (ZTO) are deposited in layers as components for the newest generation thin film displays.
  • 2008: A modified form of Inconel (Ni/Cr/Fe) used in extreme conditions for aerospace and automotive applications.
  • 2011-12: New Piezoelectric Perovskite materials such as PNZT, PLZT, and PMN-PT for ferroelecric film and MEMS. more info
  • 2013: Materials for absorbing Thermal Shock in rockets comprised of Hafnium yttrium oxide and Hafnium cerium oxide.
  • 2014: Chalcogenide Glasses - Semiconducting covalent network solids with interesting properties suitable for optical and memory applications.

At LTS we are devoted to meeting our customers' needs, delivering the highest quality materials at very competitive prices, tailored to customers' specification. Our knowledgeable staff provide unsurpassed level of service. We welcome your inquiries and look forward to working with you!

Where quality is concerned, LTS is at the cutting edge of the industry.

Ongoing Research and Development Projects

Sputter-deposited low loss Mg2SiO4 thin films for multilayer hybrids (Click to view)
Sputter-deposited low loss Mg2SiO4 thin films for multilayer hybrids
Chan Su Han a, Bhaskar Chandra Mohanty a, Chong Yun Kang b, Yong Soo Cho a,⁎
a Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749, Republic of Korea
b Thin Film Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 130-659, Republic of Korea

Electrochemical kinetics of Sodium Titanium Oxide (Na2Ti3O7) as anode material for lithium-ion batteries (Click to view)
Electrochemical kinetics of Sodium Titanium Oxide (Na2Ti3O7) as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

Standard Specification for Niobium-Hafnium Alloy Foil Sheet Strip and Plate1 (Click to view)
Standard Specification for Niobium-Hafnium Alloy Foil, Sheet, Strip, and Plate1

Standard Specification for Niobium-Hafnium Alloy Ingots1 (Click to view)
Standard Specification for Niobium-Hafnium Alloy Ingots1

Working Pressure Dependence of WO3x Thin Films Prepared by Reactive Facing Targets Sputtering (Click to view)
The correlation between the WO3-x thin films and EC properties was investigated.

Towards high degree of c axis orientation in MgB2 bulks (Click to view)
This paper presents fabrication and characterization of spark plasma sintered textured (001) MgB2 with a record degree of orientation of about 40% and 16% by high-energy ultra-sonication and slip casting in high magnetic field (12 T) and 0 T magnetic field, respectively.

Thin film BCZT in a capacitive thermo-electric converter (Click to view)
Thin film BCZT was processed, optimized, and analyzed from powder to ceramic to film for use in a capacitive thermos-electric converter.

Thermoelectric properties of DC sputtered filled skutterudite thin film (Click to view)
Preparation of Yb filled skutterudite thin film growth using DC magnetron sputtering

The Toxicity of Secondary Lithium-Sulfur Batteries Components (Click to view)
Identification of materials used in the production of Li-S batteries and their toxicity, especially for humans.

The effect of site geometry Ti content and Ti oxidation state on the Ti K-edge XANES spectrum of synthetic hibonite (Click to view)
Modelling of Al-rich oxide hibonite (CaAl12O19)

The Annealing Effect on the Some Optical Properties of (Cu2ZnSnS4) Thin Films (Click to view)
Study of the optical properties of prepared Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films by spin coating method.

Techno-economic Analysis on the Reco echno-economic Analysis on the Recovery Valorization of alorization of Lithium fr Lithium from Recy om Recycled Batter cled Battery Waste Materials (Click to view)
LIB separation and recovery schemes

Symmetry conservation of Dirac fermion with double junction and gauge field of Weyl fermion with single junction (Click to view)
Study of the conservation of the symmetry of fermion from the electrical properties of transistors using phase insulator.

Structural and electrical properties of transparent conductor SrVO3 thin films grown using radio frequency sputtering deposition (Click to view)
Transparent conductor SrVO3 films were grown on various substrates with commercial Sr 2V 2O 7 targets using RF magnetron sputtering deposition.

Sintered and 3D Printed Bulks of MgB2 Based Materials with Antimicrobial Properties (Click to view)
This work aims to assess antimicrobial activity quantified as viable cells (CFU/mL) vs. time of sintered and 3D-printed materials.

Selective photoactive gas detection of CO and HCHO using highly porous SnO2 and SnO2 TiO2 heterostructure (Click to view)
Fabrication of a controlled porous structure for photoactive gas sensors using the gas-flow thermal evaporation and atomic layer deposition method.

Safe Sustainable Discharge of Electric Vehicle Batteries as a Pre treatment Step to Crushing in the Recycling Process (Click to view)
The aim of this thesis is to explore four processes that could be suitable for industrial use.

Room temperature ferromagnetism from magnetic ion free binary oxide film (Click to view)
Investigation of the magnetic moment of thickness-dependent SnO2 films at room temperature.

Remarkable Improvement of Organic Solar Cells Lifetime with Zn doped In2O3 Electrode as UV blocking TCO (Click to view)
A study about the lifetime improvement of organic solar cells (OSCs) based on the conjugated polymer:fullerene blends using an ultra-violet (UV) blocking transparent conducting oxide (TCO).

Preview 2019 Materials Research Society Fall Meeting Exhibit (Click to view)
Photoactive nanostructured materials and devices Pt photoanodes Cu photocatalysts and SnS absorbers (Click to view)
Demonstration about the utilization of the solar energy with three different devices incorporating sculptured thin films (STFs).

Phase Control of RF Sputtered SnSx with Post-Deposition Annealing for a Pseudo Homojunction Photovoltaic Device (Click to view)
In this study, n- and p-type sputter-deposited SnSx have been investigated for use in a homojunction photovoltaic device

Organic photovoltaic cells fabricated on a SnOx Ag SnOx multilayer transparent conducting electrode (Click to view)
Evaluation of compatibility levels of Indium-free SnOx/Ag/SnOx multilayer transparent conducting electrodes as a reliable anode for normal OPVs.

Organic materials for the improvement and understanding of electrochemical devices (Click to view)
The contents of this thesis focus on how organic materials can be applied to improve Li+ based batteries.

Optogeometric study of multimode TiO waveguide thin films elaborated by reactive magnetron sputtering (Click to view)
Study of the effect of thickness on the structural, morphological and optical properties with an emphasis on the waveguide properties of TiO2 thin films on the basis of prism coupler measurements with comparison to Swanepoel’s method.

Optical Properties of Sputtered SnS Thin Films for Photovoltaic Absorbers (Click to view)
The optical properties of SnS thin films are investigated to assess their compatibility with the solar spectrum.

Nanometer-scale Science and Technology (Click to view)
MgB2 powders and bioevaluation of their interaction with planktonic microbes biofilms and tumor cells (Click to view)
Characterization of commercial nanopowders of MgB2 from the viewpoint of granulometric distribution, structure, microstructure, and pH behavior in water.

MgB2 based biodegradable materials for orthopedic implants (Click to view)
Two types of biodegradable materials for orthopedic implants, MgB2 and PLA-MgB2 , were assessed by in vivo tests of implantation into the femoral bone of the rat model.

Life-Related Hazards of Materials Applied to Mg S Batteries (Click to view)
This article is about reviews made from the point of view of materials engaged during the development of the Mg–S batteries, their sulfur cathodes, magnesium anodes, electrolyte systems, current collectors, and separators. Simultaneously, various hazards related to the use of such materials were also discussed.

K2CO3 in closed heat storage systems (Click to view)
In this paper, the equilibrium behavior and reaction kinetics of a K2CO3 composite are investigated under pure water vapor conditions, as present in closed vacuum systems.

Investigation of the absorption properties of sputtered tin sulfide thin films for photovoltaic applications (Click to view)
Investigation of RF-Sputtered Tin Sulfide Thin (Click to view)
Sputtering of SnS thin films by a SnS2 target using in situ heating of the substrate.

In situ synthesis of co continuous aluminum aluminum nitride composites by arc plasma induced accelerated displacement reaction (Click to view)
Investigation of in-situ formation of co-continuous aluminum (Al)-aluminum nitride (AlN) composites with attractive mechanical and thermal properties by newly developed arc plasma-induced accelerated displacement reaction (APADR)

Highly Porous SnO2 TiO2 Heterojunction Thin Film Photocatalyst Using Gas Flow Thermal Evaporation and Atomic Layer Deposition (Click to view)
Synthesis of a highly porous SnO2/TiO2 heterojunction structure using gas flow thermal evaporation and ALD, which controlled the TiO2 thickness on the porous SnO2 structure.

Heat generation characteristics of microheaters prepared with ITO nanoparticles and organic additives (Click to view)
Demonstration of the heat generation characteristics of microheaters prepared with an ITO nanoparticle (NP) paste, which is a mixture of ITO NPs, polymethyl methacrylate, and terpineol.

Growth of Multilayer Wse2Bi2o2se Heterostructures for Photodetection Without Lithography (Click to view)
Fabrication of the WSe2/Bi2O2Se6 heterostructure for photodetector application via in situ pulsed laser deposition.

Functionality of piezoceramic film transducers suitable for bulk-wave and guided wave techniques to be used for NDE and SHM.

Experimental and numerical investigation of cavitation induced erosion in thermal sprayed single splats (Click to view)
The cavitation erosion behaviors of YSZ and 304SS single splats obtained by plasma spraying.

Evolution of Structure and Lithium Dynamics in LiNi0.8Mn0.1Co0.1O2 (NMC811) Cathodes during Electrochemical Cycling (Click to view)
Combination of electrochemistry, operando synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD), and ex situ solid-state NMR spectroscopy to provide new insights into the structural changes and lithium dynamics of NMC811 during electrochemical charge and discharge, which are essential for a better understanding of its fast degradation

Effect of Annealing on the Structure Composition and Electrochemistry of NMC811 Coated with Al2O3 Using an Alkoxide Precursor (Click to view)
Researchers have developed a convenient solution-based deposition method for the synthesis of aluminum oxide coated NMC811 secondary particles and studied the effects of annealing temperature on their structure and electrochemical lifetime in lithium-ion batteries.

Electrolyte Reactivity at the Charged Ni Rich Cathode Interface and Degradation in Li Ion Batteries (Click to view)
In this work, investigation of low- and high-Ni content NMC with single solvent LiPF6-based electrolytes (EC-only and EMC-only) has unlocked new understanding of the increased interfacial reactivity for charged Ni-rich NMC cathodes and the pivotal role played by the electrolyte solvent.

Effect of Oxygen Flux on FTO Thin Films Using DC and RF Sputtering (Click to view)
Invesrigation on the influence of the sort of power source (RF generator and DC generator) and oxygen flux.

Direct In Situ Growth of Centimeter Scale Multi Heterojunction MoS2 WS2 WSe2 Thin Film (Click to view)
In this study, vertically stacked centimeter-scale multi-TMD (MoS 2 /WS 2 /WSe 2 and MoS 2 /WSe 2 ) thin films are successfully fabricated via sequential pulsed laser deposition (PLD), which is an in situ growth process.

Diffusion Currents in the Amorphous Structure of Zinc Tin Oxide and Crystallinity Dependent Electrical Characteristics (Click to view)
In this study, zinc tin oxide (ZTO) films were prepared on indium tin oxide (ITO) glasses and annealed at different temperatures under vacuum to investigate the correlation between the Ohmic/Schottky contacts, electrical properties, and bonding structures with respect to the annealing temperatures.

Design of an amorphous TaOx multifunctional (Click to view)
Design of a multifunctional layer for photocathodes to minimize interface formation between contacts.

CuInS2 Photocathodes with Atomic Gradation Controlled (Ta Mo)x(O S)y Passivation Layers for Efficient Photoelectrochemical H2 Production (Click to view)
This study was about the preparation of the novel material (Ta,Mo)x(O,S)y and applicationof the materials to a CuInS2 photocathode as a cocatalytic passivation layer for photoelectrochemical H2 production.

Controlling Interfacial Properties of Lithium Ion Battery Cathodes with Alkylphosphonate Self Assembled Monolayers (Click to view)
In this work, the preparation and characterization of modified LiMn2O4 (LMO) cathodes utilizing chemisorbed alkylphosphonic acids to chemically modify their surfaces are reported

Characterization of Vapor Deposited Thin Films of Magnesium and Magnesium Alloys (Click to view)
Magnesium and magnesium-aluminum alloy thin films were created by physical vapor deposition using a dual gun electron beam physical vapor deposition (EBPVD) system for the purpose of evaluating their corrosion properties.

Characterization and control of lithium-ion battery interfaces (Click to view)
study of a key component of the lithium-ion battery: the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI)

Building Blocks for 3D Integrated Circuits Single Crystal Compound Semiconductor Growth and Device Fabrication on Amorphous Substrates (Click to view)
A potential novel approach for continued improvement is a three dimensional (3D) multifunctional integrated circuit.

Application and testing of risk screening tools for nanomaterial risk analysis (Click to view)
This study tested a subset of emerging tools for ENM risk analysis using a case study focused on ENMs designed for water treatment technologies.

All solid state thin film battery based on well aligned slanted LiCoO2 nanowires fabricated by glancing angle deposition (Click to view)
In this study, the researchers fabricated all-solid-state thin film batteries based on well-aligned slanted LiCoO 2 nanowires by glanc-
ing angle deposition, as a facile template-free method in order to increase the electrochemically active
site, i.e., the contact area between the solid electrolyte and the electrode.

2019 MRS Fall Meeting Exhibitors (Click to view)
Aerosol Jet Printing as a Versatile Sample Preparation Method for Operando Electrochemical TEM Microdevices (Click to view)
A novel approach of manufacturing such samples is introduced and demonstrated for industrially relevant battery powders: NMC811 and LTO (LiNi0.8Mn0.1Co0.1O2 and Li4Ti5O12)

Correlation Between Energy Gap and Defect Formation of Al Doped Zinc Oxide on Carbon Doped Silicon Oxide (Click to view)
Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films were deposited on SiOC/Si wafer by an RF-magnetron sputtering system, by varying the deposition parameters of radio frequency power from 50 to 200 W

Control of Phase in Tin Sulfide Thin Films Produced via RFSputtering of SnS2 Target with Post-deposition Annealing (Click to view)
Investigation of the optoelectronic properties, crystallographic phase, and morphology of annealed, sputtered tin sulfide thin films.

Chemical Shift and Surface Characteristics of Al Doped ZnO Thin Film on SiOC Dielectrics (Click to view)
C–V curve of SiOC/Si wafer was measured to observe the relationship between the polarity of SiOC dielectrics and the change of capacitance depending on oxygen gas flow rate.

Characterization of the molten salt FMgNaK through ab initio (Click to view)
Mg-F-Mg chaining is observed in the salt network, though the low concentration of Mg inhibits chaining on the scale that is observed in (LiF)0.67(BeF2)0.33, or FLiBe.

Beyond superconductivity towards novel biomedical energy ecology and heritage applications of MgB2 (Click to view)
In this work, a review on recent trends and new directions of MgB2 applications were studied and their potential impact was discussed.

Antibacterial composite coatings of MgB2 powders embedded in PVP matrix (Click to view)
In vitro MTS and LDH cytotoxicity tests of the MgB2 activity on the HS27 dermal cell line indicated a toxicity limit in the range of 8.3–33.2 µg/ml depending on the powder type. Three powders were tested and the most active was LTS.

A Study on an Oxygen Vacancy and Conductivity of Oxide Thin Films Deposited by RF Magnetron Sputtering and Annealed in a Vacuum (Click to view)
The correlation between an annealing temperature and oxygen vacancy to enhance the conductivity in an oxide semiconductor was researched in this paper

Characteristic of AZOSiCO Film by XRay Diffraction Pattern and XRay Photoelectron Spectroscopy (Click to view)
Thin-films characteristic of AZO-SiC compound

Thermal shock resistance of yttrium aluminium oxide Y3Al5O12 thermal barrier coating for titanium alloy (Click to view)
Correlation between energy gap and defect formation of Al doped zinc oxide on carbon doped silicon oxide
T Oh, CH Kim - Transactions on Electrical and Electronic …, 2014 - koreascience.or.kr
… AZO targets (99.99% purity) were supplied by LTS Research Laboratories, Inc., USA The
base pressure was 4.5 × 10-5 Pa. The flow rate of the argon (99.9999%) was controlled by a …

Process sensitivities and interface Optimization of CdTe Solar Cells Deposited by Close-space Sublimation (Click to view)
CdTe-Process sensitivities and interface optimization of CdTe solar cells deposited by close space sublimation:-
by Christos Potamialis for the award of Doctor of Philosophy of Loughborough University


Nickel rich NMC (a>b>c) Lithium Nickel Cobalt Manganese Oxide (NMC) material is used in batteries with high energy or high power applications.

One of the most successful solid-state battery systems is the one made with Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (NMC) as a cathode material.

Capability and product portfolio of thermal spray compounds Ver. 1.2 07-08-2019

Research and development of transparent ceramic Ver. 1.1 -05-09-2019